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Models used in the Global Modelling Group (MOD)

In the global modelling group mainly three global models, ICON-ART, EMAC, and KASIMA, were used and developed to achieve the scientific goals.


ICON-ART, where ART stands for Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases, is an extension of ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic model; developed at the German Weatherservice (DWD) and the Max-Plank-Institute of Meteorology Hamburg (MPI-M)) to enable the simulation of gases, aerosol particles and related feedback processes in the atmosphere.

ICON-ART is developed at KIT in close co-operation of the working group "Aerosols, Trace Gases and Climate Processes" of IMK-TRO and the Global Modelling (MOD) group of the IMK-ASF.

In its current stage, ICON-ART is capable of simulating mineral dust and sea salt aerosol and the interactions of these aerosol types with clouds. Additionally, in a joint development with German Weatherservice (DWD), the dispersion of volcanic ash particles and radioactive tracers has been made available for operational forecast.

The Global Modelling group is developing a module for ICON-ART to simulate atmospheric chemistry processes from the ground up to the middle atmosphere. Current activities of the group related to ICON-ART can be found here.

For a further description of ICON-ART, see

Rieger et al.: ICON-ART 1.0 - a new online coupled model system from the global to regional scale (2015)

or the official ICON-ART website


To receive an ICON-ART licence, please contact Bernhard Vogel.


The ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model developed at the Max-Planck-Institut for Chemistry in Mainz and based on the ECHAM5 model of the Max-Planck-Institut for Meteorology in Hamburg has been used in our group since 2004. Due to its coding approach and its interface structure the chemistry-climate model EMAC can easily used for a wide range of investigations. Our focus is on the stratospheric ozone budget and on the processes controlling the ozone depletion in polar winter/spring (e.g. the denitrification). The dentrification is caused by large polar stratospheric cloud particles (PSC's) which occurence and frequency is determined by the meteorology (temperatures). As the stratospheric temperatures could change in a changing climate it is important to understand the microphysical processes of the PSC's in detail to be able to make a reliable prediction of the future development of the ozone layer.

Current activities of the group related to EMAC can be found here. 


KASIMA (Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere) has been developed at the IMK-ASF to simulate the behaviour of the middle atmosphere.  KASIMA consists of three major modules: The meteorological module integrates the primitive meteorological equations in time. It is driven by the net heating rate that is computed in the radiation module using the absorbtion of ozone and molecular oxygen in the UV spectrum and of carbondioxyde, ozone, and water vapor in the near infrared. The chemical module representing the stratosphere consists of all relevant chemical species and families, gas phase reactions, photodissociations and heterogeneous reactions taking place on surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) and on liquid sulfuric acid aerosols.

Fore more details see: W. Kouker, I. Langbein, Th. Reddmann, and R. Ruhnke, The Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), Version 2, FZK Report 6278, 1999 (available as Acrobat PDF).

Current activities of the group related to KASIMA can be found here.